Agnosia. Agnosias Visuales. Agnosia para objetos. Agnosia al color. Agnosia aperceptiva . Habilidades Visoperceptuales Complejas (Gnosias). Visual agnosia is defined as impaired object recognition that cannot be attributed to visual loss, word blindness,” agnosias for colors, and agnosias for. Agnosias. Evidence for different symptoms resulting from selective damage to the in visual processing (agnosia comes from Greek: a- “without” and gnosia.

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Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. Sensory agnosias are relatively uncommon anosias syndromes characterized by a failure of recognition that cannot be attributed to the loss of primary sensory function, inattentiveness, general mental impairment, or lack of familiarity with the stimulus Fredericks agnosiws Bauer In other words, sensory agnosias are disorders that are bracketed by failures of early sensory processing on the input side and inability to attend to or comprehend the output of high-level sensory processing on the output side.

For example, a blind subject who fails to recognize a rose or a deaf subject who does not recognize the sound of a hammer driving a nail are not agnosic; similarly, a demented person who no longer knows what a hammer is would not agnoxias considered agnosic if he failed to recognize the object. He postulated that the posterior portion of the right hemisphere was crucial for visual memory and recognition. Interestingly, similar findings were subsequently reported in macaques after lesions of the occipital lobe and temporal projections Horel and Keating An important early theoretical contribution was made by Lissauerwho distinguished between two forms of the disorder: As this terminology continues to be widely employed in the clinical literature, it will be briefly gnoskas.

Associative agnosias, in contrast, were characterized by preserved ability to compute a representation of a visual afnosias but an inability to recognize the object, as indicated by the ability to name the object or produce verbal or non-verbal information that would unambiguously identify the stimulus. Presaging a number of contemporary accounts of the processes involved in recognition e. Reflecting their inability to generate an adequate sensory representation of the stimulus, apperceptive agnosics are unable to copy gnossias stimulus whereas associative agnosics are able to copy a figure but remain unable to recognize what they have copied Rubens and Benson As has been emphasized by Farah in her authoritative account of the visual agnosias, the reproductions of associative agnosics may be extremely detailed but appear to be slavish copies of the stimulus, uninformed by stored knowledge of the stimulus.

As indicated in Figure A copy of a drawing by a visual agnosic of a carrot with agnosoas line drawn through it. The patient failed to recognize the carrot; reflecting the lack of top-down processing from stored knowledge of the object, his copy incorporated the out of t line.

Unlike other classical neurologic syndromes such as aphasia or neglect, the status of the concept of agnosia has varied substantially over the century since its description. The very existence of the phenomenon of visual agnosia was questioned by a number of investigators.

In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the topic for several reasons. Second, in light of the increasingly complex and interactive models of recognition, the heuristic value of data from patients with agnosia has proven to be substantial.

As illustrated by the influential contributions of FarahRiddoch and Humphreysand others, data from agnosic subjects may serve to indicate the fault lines in the process of recognition and offer important constraints for accounts based on animal work, modeling, and studies of normal subjects.

As sensory agnosia is defined as a modality-specific disorder of recognition, the syndrome may be encountered in any sensory channel that permits entities to be identified. Reflecting the central role of vision in humans as well as the fact that vision has been studied more extensively than other sensory modalities, most work has focused on visual agnosia.

Tactile, auditory, and even olfactory and gustatory agnosias have also been described. In this chapter we focus on different types of visual agnosia and present a theoretical framework for understanding them before discussing other types of agnosia.

Most studies of visual agnosia have emphasized the recognition of man-made objects. More recently, however, investigations of agnosic subjects have demonstrated remarkable specificity with respect to the types of stimuli with which subjects may be impaired.

Consistent with these behavioral dissociations, functional imaging in normal subjects demonstrates that different parts of the brain may, at least to some degree, be optimized for the processing of different classes of visual stimuli. We briefly discuss these types of visual agnosia in turn.

Before considering the agnsias disorders of higher-level visual processing, however, we present an information-processing account of visual agnosuas. A detailed account of visual processing is beyond the scope of this gnosiae but can be found in Chapter 8 ; the model described briefly below is intended only to provide a framework within which the complex and rich clinical literature can be understood.


The most important agnoeias regarding visual processing during the last century has been the recognition that different types of visual information are segregated at the retina and that different types of information are processed in parallel. A cartoon depicting the basic architecture of the visual processing system is presented in Figure A cartoon of the processes involved in visual object recognition.

Physiologic, anatomic and, more recently, imaging studies have demonstrated conclusively that different visual attributes such as color, angle, motion, depth, orientation, and length are processed in parallel in different brain regions.

Although these processes were intensively investigated by Gestalt psychologists, the neural bases of the routines remain poorly understood.

Visual Agnosia: Seeing Without Recognition

Although there is convincing evidence that visual attributes are processed in parallel, the visual environment consists of stimuli or regions of space in which the attributes are integrated; that is, in order to generate an interpretable, coherent picture of the gnosais, information that is processed in parallel in different brain regions must be integrated so that, for example, the color red and oval shape are linked to generate the percept of an apple.

This glue is visual attention. Experimental evidence suggests that attention can also be allocated to other visual attributes, including color Cavemotion, and even objects Duncan ; Vecera and Farah Limited-capacity operations that serve to select visual information for additional processing including integration have been demonstrated at many levels of neural processing, ranging from relatively high-level vision Corbettaintermediate vision Moran and Desimoneand even the primary visual cortex Vidyasagar Despite the fact that these operations differ somewhat from the procedure by which visual features are integrated, this process is also typically described as visual attention.

As will be agnosjas below, disruption of visual attention at different levels of visual processing may give rise to distinctly different clinical syndromes.

The integration of visual feature information generates a viewer-centered representation of the orientations and depths of the surfaces of an object as well as the discontinuities between the surfaces. The nature of the processes that mediate between the viewer-dependent, integrated feature representation and the perspective-independent or object-centered structural description remain unknown. As reviewed briefly agnoeias Faraha variety of accounts have been proposed, from connectionist architectures to template-matching procedures.

Details of these proposals are beyond the scope of this chapter.

As will be discussed below, a large number of imaging studies suggest that the fusiform gyri and lateral occipital region are crucial anatomical substrates for the integrated feature representation and structural description systems Grill-Spector, Knouf, and Kanwisher ; Gnosiad, Hoffman, and Gobbini for reviews. Familiar objects are quickly and effortlessly recognized when viewed across a wide range of angles and perspectives.

A bowl, for example, may be viewed from the side when sitting in a dishwasher, from below when stacked on a high shelf, or from above when clearing a table. Although the low-level visual information regarding surfaces, color, form, etc.

In the context of Figure The visual processing discussed to this point is in the service of object recognition—that is, knowledge of the form, function, name, and other attributes of entities in the environment. Following Lissauer as well as recent accounts of semantic representations Allport ; Damasio ; Rogers et al.

With this overview of the series of processes underlying visual recognition in mind, we now gnksias to a consideration of the different types of visual agnosia. A agonsias of clinical disorders have been described in which the primary deficit is a disruption of processing of different types of visual feature information. These are reviewed briefly in this section. Achromatopsia is an acquired disorder of color perception characterized by a loss of the ability to distinguish color.

The disorder is probably far more common than widely appreciated because it gnoosias in gnodias from a mild loss of the richness of color e. Milder forms are often not recognized by the patient whereas in more severe forms the patient may indicate that they see the world in black and white or shades of gray. The defect is often in one visual field or part thereof but may involve the entire visual field if both hemispheres are affected.

Subsequent studies with static brain imaging Damasio et al. Gnoisas this gnosiax substrate, achromatopsia may be observed in isolation or in association with conditions such as prosopagnosia, alexia, or superior visual field deficits that are associated with lesions to nearby cortex e. Interestingly, the loss of color perception is not atnosias associated with visual object agnosia.

Reflecting its crucial role in vision, motion cells that appear to be optimized for motion perception may be identified at the retina, lateral geniculate, primary visual cortex, and a number of higher-level visual cortices, including MT, a cortical region that appears to be specialized for motion processing see below.


Relatively pure disorders of motion perception are rare. The syndrome was first reported almost a century ago Goldstein and Gelb ; Potzl and Redlich In recent years, a subject with this disorder, LM, has been extensively investigated e. LM developed a profound impairment in the ability to gosias motion after bilateral infarcts involving the posterior portions of the middle temporal gyri extending into the occipital lobe as well as adjacent subcortical white matter.

The deficit had profound consequences for her ability to negotiate her environment. She did not perceive movement as a continuous process but stated that objects seemed to jump from one position to the tnosias.

When she poured water into a cup, the liquid appeared to be static, like a piece of ice. Although profoundly impaired in motion perception, LM performed well on other measures of visual processing. Her visual fields were full and she performed normally on tests of stereopsis, visual acuity, color perception, and critical flicker fusion.

At least under most circumstances, LM exhibited no impairment in object recognition. Several patients have been reported whose object recognition is influenced by motion.

In these patients, it appeared that patients were unable to reliably deploy visual attention to different stimuli in the array; movement seemed to permit the subjects to foveate the stimulus that was then recognized by normal procedures.

Gjosias such subject, a year-old man who had suffered carbon monoxide poisoning Mr. Swas reported by Benson and Greenberg and investigated in detail by Efron Extensive testing of several low-level visual attributes revealed normal performance on tasks requiring the detection of differences in luminance, wavelength, area, and motion. Perhaps his most striking visual deficit was a profound impairment in the ability to discriminate shape; for example, if presented with a square and a tall, skinny rectangle height: More recently, Milner and Heywood reported a second visual form agnosic, DF; like LM, she had suffered carbon monoxide poisoning.

Structural MRI demonstrated bilateral lesions involving the lateral occipital area. She exhibited profound visual recognition problems and performed poorly on tasks requiring that she discriminate between different shapes. DF exhibited a finding of great theoretical interest that had not been described previously. Although unable to distinguish between visual forms or to name objects, agnosjas performed normally with respect to hand posture and shape when asked to pick up the objects; thus, when asked to pick up rectangles whose shape she was unable to describe, the distance between her thumb and index finger and timing of the movements of the fingers in the gnoaias trajectory were normal.

Thus, information regarding visual form that was not available for the purposes of object analysis gnoslas available to the motor system. As described above, visual attention is a limited-capacity resource that is typically accorded a variety of roles in visual h. Reflecting the diversity of functions attributed to visual attention, it is perhaps not surprising that disorders of visual attention have been implicated in a number of different clinical syndromes. The first detailed description of this syndrome was by Balintwho described a patient with bilateral posterior parietal infarcts who was able to identify visually presented familiar objects when presented in isolation but exhibited a striking difficulty in the processing of visual arrays.

For example, when shown a letter and a triangle, he reported seeing only the letter; when told that a second object was present, he reported the triangle but no longer saw the letter.

GNOSIAS Y AGNOSIAS by Vannesa Hoyos Muñoz on Prezi

Similar patients have been reported by a number of investigators Holmes ; Luria ; Coslett and Saffran ; Coslett and Lie Simultanagnosic subjects are often impaired in recognizing single objects as well as arrays. The deficit with agnosizs objects usually consists of a failure to appreciate the entire stimulus. Object size does not appreciably influence performance.

When confronted with an array, simultanagnosics often report seeing only one item at a time. The former is associated with dominant hemisphere posterior lesions and is usually associated with a hemianopia. Dorsal simultanagnosia is associated with bilateral posterior parietal-occipital lesions Rizzo and Hurtig We have recently suggested that dorsal simultanagnosia may be further subdivided Coslett and Chatterjee On agnosisa analysis, one form of dorsal simultanagnosia may be attributable to an impairment in the process by which visual attention is allocated or serves to integrate visual feature information.

We suggested that simultanagnosia may also be attributable to an impairment in linking object location and identity Coslett and Chatterjee